Maryland Statewide Individualized Education Program (IEP) Process Guide July 2014  

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Commonly Used Terms


A

Accommodation

A practice or procedure that provides a student with a disability equitable access during instruction and to assessments in the areas of: presentation response; setting; and scheduling. Accommodations do not reduce learning expectations.

[20 U.S.C. §1412(a)(16); COMAR 13A.05.01.03B(1); Maryland Accommodations Manual, June 2012; State Performance Plan Indicator 3]

Age of Majority

IDEA requires that at least one year prior to reaching the age of majority in accordance with State law, the parents and student are to be informed of his or her rights under IDEA, which will transfer to him/her, if any. Rights under IDEA do not transfer to students with disabilities under Maryland State law. In certain limited circumstances, all rights accorded to the parents under IDEA shall transfer to a student with a disability. This transfer occurs when the student reaches the age of 18 years, if the student has not been adjudged incompetent under State law and there is documentation that:
 

The parents are unavailable or unknown, and the student requests that the parental rights be transferred to the student rather than have a parent surrogate appointed;
The parents have not participated in the special education decision making process for the student after repeated attempts by the public agency to involve the parents over the previous year;
The parents have affirmatively rejected participation in the special education decision making process;
The parents cannot participate in the special education decision making process due to prolonged hospitalization, institutionalization, or serious illness or infirmity of one or both of the parents and the parents have consented to the transfer of rights to the student;
The parents cannot participate in the special education decision making process due to extraordinary circumstances beyond their control, and the parents have consented to the transfer of rights to the student; or
The student is living outside of the parents' home and is not in the care or custody of another public agency.
 

If the parents of a student with a disability, with whom the student resides, do not consent to the transfer of rights to the student at the age of 18, and the student has not been adjudged incompetent under State law, either party may file for due process to determine whether the rights should be transferred.

If a parent surrogate in accordance with federal and State laws and regulations has represented a student with a disability, the public agency shall provide any written notice required under federal and State laws and regulations to both the student and parent surrogate. All other rights afforded the parent surrogate under IDEA shall transfer to the student if the student has not been adjudged incompetent under State law and the student requests that the rights transfer to the student. [Education Article §8-412.1, Annotated Code of Maryland]

Alternate Assessment Based on Alternate Academic Achievement Standards (AA-AAS)

Students with the most significant cognitive disabilities participate in the AA-AAS if through the IEP process it has been determined they cannot participate in the MSA even with accommodations (see participation guidelines below). The AA-AAS assesses and reports student attainment of individually selected indicators and objectives from the reading, mathematics, and science content standards. Students participate in THE AA-AAS in grades 3 through 8, and grade 10. The AA-AAS results are reported in three proficiency levels (Basic, Proficient, and Advanced) as part of the State Accountability program. Results from the AA-AAS are aggregated with those from the PARCC for accountability purposes, but the number of AA-AAS students reported as “proficient” or above will be capped at 1% of the total number of assessed students at each grade and content. Refer to the “Maryland Accommodation Manual,” 2012 for additional information regarding the guidelines for AA-AAS.
Each student’s IEP team makes the decision as to which assessment is appropriate for an individual student. A student with a significant cognitive disability will participate in AA-AAS if he or she meets each of the following criteria:

  • The student is learning (at emerging, readiness, or functional literacy levels) extended Maryland reading and extended Maryland mathematics content standards objectives.

                                                                AND

  • The student requires explicit and ongoing instruction in functional skills.

                                                                AND

  • The student requires extensive and substantial modification (e.g., reduced complexity of objectives and learning materials, and more time to learn) of the general education curriculum. The curriculum differs significantly from that of their non-disabled peers. They learn different objectives, may use different materials, and may participate in different learning activities.

                                                               AND

  • The student requires intensive instruction and may require extensive supports, including physical prompts, to learn, apply, and transfer or generalize knowledge and skills to multiple settings.

                                                               AND

  • The student requires extensive support to perform and participate meaningfully and productively in daily activities in school, home, community, and work environments.

                                                              AND

  • The student cannot participate in the MSA even with accommodations.

Students not meeting the criteria above will participate in the MSA, with or without accommodations, as appropriate, based on their IEP.
[Maryland Accommodations Manual, July 2012; COMAR 13A.03.02; State Performance Plan Indicator 3]

Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State-to-State for English Language Learners (ACCESS for ELLS and Alternate ACCESS for ELLS –

ACCESS for ELLs® is an English language proficiency test; as such, it is a tool used to assess the construct of ELs' receptive and productive skills in English. Because it focuses on language rather than content area knowledge and skills, some accommodations that might be appropriate for the classroom or content area tests should not be used with ACCESS for ELLs® or Alternate ACCESS for ELLs® as they will invalidate the construct. In other words, students would be taking a test that is no longer measuring just their English language proficiency, making any interpretation or inferences from the scores invalid. Refer to Maryland Accommodations Manual Appendix P: MD State Assessment and ACCESS for ELLs® Accommodations Crosswalk for additional information.
[Maryland Accommodations Manual, July 2012]

Assessment –
The process of collecting data for an evaluation to be used by an Individualized Education Program (IEP) team to determine a student’s need for special education and related services.

Assistive Technology Device –
Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of a student with a disability. The term does not include a medical device that is surgically implanted, or the replacement of such device. [20 U.S.C. §1401(1); 34 C.F.R. §300.5]

Assistive Technology Service –
Any service that directly assists a student with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device. The term includes:

  • The evaluation of the needs of such student, including a functional evaluation of the student in the student’s customary environment;
  • Purchasing, leasing, or otherwise providing for the acquisition of assistive technology devices by such student;
  • Selecting, designing, fitting, customizing, adapting, applying, maintaining, repairing, or replacing assistive technology devices;
  • Coordinating and using other therapies, interventions, or services with assistive technology devices, such as those associated with existing education and rehabilitation plans and programs;
  • Training or technical assistance for such student, or, where appropriate, the family of such student; and
  • Training or technical assistance for professionals (including individuals providing education and rehabilitation services), employers, or other individuals who provide services to, employ, or are otherwise substantially involved in the major life functions of such student.

[20 U.S.C. §1401 (2); 34 C.F.R. §300.6; COMAR 13A.05.01.03B(5)(b)]
 

B

Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
A proactive plan designed to address problem behaviors exhibited by a student in the educational setting through the use of positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports. [COMAR 13A.08.04.02B(1)]

 

Bridge Validation Program (Bridge Plan)

The Bridge Plan for Academic Validation is for students failing to meet the passing score on any one HSA at least twice. Eligible students would also have to meet additional local and state criteria such as minimum GPA, satisfactory attendance, passing grades in all HSA subjects, and participation in academic remediation. Students meeting the eligibility criteria would be permitted to complete an Academic Validation project that demonstrates the content and skills of each HSA they failed to pass. To be eligible for the Bridge Plan, students must have failed an HSA at least twice, passed the HSA-related course, and completed an assistance program offered by their school or school system—for example, tutoring or after-school instruction. Students must also have an acceptable attendance record and be making satisfactory progress toward graduation. Local school systems will determine when a student may begin work on the Bridge Plan. A local review panel, established by your school district, will evaluate the Academic Validation Project(s) at the end of the assigned work period, and your local superintendent will give final approval.  For additional information, see:  http://mdk12.org/share/pdf/Bridge_Final.pdf

 

[COMAR13A.03.02.09B(d)(2)]

C

COMAR
Code of Maryland Regulations. Title 13 of COMAR includes all regulations adopted by the State Board of Education for the provision of public education to students in the State of Maryland. Within Title 13A, the following chapters are specifically applicable to students with disabilities:

  • COMAR 13A.05.01 Provision of a Free Appropriate Public Education
  • COMAR 13A.05.02 Administration of Services for Students with Disabilities
  • COMAR 13A.08.03 Discipline of Students with Disabilities
  • COMAR 13A.08.04 Student Behavioral Interventions
     

Consent

A public agency is required to ensure the parent has been fully informed of all information relevant to the activity for which consent is sought, in the parent's native language or other mode of communication; understands and agrees in writing to the carrying out of the activity for which the parent's consent is sought, and the consent describes that activity and lists the records, if any, that will be released and to whom; and understand that the granting of consent is voluntary on the part of the parent and may be revoked at any time. Consent includes that if the parent revoke consent, that revocation is not retroactive and does not negate an action that occurred after the consent was given and before the consent was revoked; and if the parent revokes consent in writing for their child’s receipt of special education services after the child is initially provided special education and related services, the public agency is not required to amend the student’s education records to remove any references to the child’s receipt of special education and related services because of the revocation of consent.

[34 CFR §§300.9, and 300.300]
 

D

Direct Service

Instructional and/or related services provided to the student

Discussion to Support Decision(s) (optional)
A text field available to an IEP Team to provide additional information relative to an area within the student’s IEP where decisions are made. If an IEP Team intends to use the student’s IEP to satisfy the requirements for prior written notice (PWN), this text field provides space for that purpose. Please refer to the definition of prior written notice (PWN) below.

[20 U.S.C. §1415; 34 C.F.R §300.503; COMAR 13A.05.01.12]

Document Basis for Decision(s) (required)
A required text field for an IEP team to provide additional information to document the basis of the IEP team’s decision. If addressed properly, documentation will meet requirements of prior written notice (PWN), in accordance with 34 C.F.R. §300.503 and COMAR 13A.05.01.12, PWN includes:

  • A description of the action proposed or refused;
  • An explanation of why the public agency proposes or refuses to take the action;
  • A description of the options the public agency considered and the reason the options were rejected;
  • A description of each assessment procedure, test, record, or report the public agency uses as a basis for the proposal or refusal; and
  • A description of any other factors relevant to the proposed or refused action;
  • A list of sources a parent may contact to obtain assistance in understanding the provisions of this chapter; and
  • If an action proposed by a public agency also requires parental consent, a public agency may provide notice at the same time it requests consent.

[34 C.F.R. §300.503; COMAR 13A.05.01.12]
 

E

Early Childhood Transition

Children referred by the Local Infants and Toddlers Program (LITP) prior to age 3, who are found eligible for IDEA Part B preschool services, have an IEP developed and implemented on or before their third birthday.

[20 U.S.C. §1412(a)(9); 34 C.F.R. §300.124; 34 C.F.R. §303.211; COMAR 13A.05.01.08A(2); 13A.13.01.09; State Performance Plan Indicator 12]

 

To ensure a smooth transition for toddlers receiving early intervention services under IDEA Part C to preschool or other appropriate services, the LITP shall notify the local school system of the jurisdiction in which the student resides that the student will shortly reach the age of eligibility for preschool services under IDEA Part B. In the case of the student who may be eligible for IDEA Part B preschool services, with the approval of the family of the student, convene a Transition Planning Meeting among the LITP, the family, and the local school system at least 90 days and at the discretion of all parties, not more than 9 months before the student is eligible for the preschool services, to discuss any services that the student may receive. In the case of a student who may not be eligible for preschool services, with the approval of the family, make reasonable efforts to convene a Transition Planning Meeting among the LITP, the family, and providers of other appropriate services for children who are not eligible for preschool services under IDEA Part B, to discuss the appropriate services that the student may receive.

[20 U.S.C. §1416(a)(3)(B); 34 C.F.R. §§300.101(b); 300.124; 300.323;
34 C.F.R. §303.209; COMAR 13A.05.01.08A(2); COMAR 13A.13.01.09; State Performance Plan Indicators 12

Evaluation
The review of information from parents; existing data; and results of assessment procedures at a meeting of the IEP team and other qualified professionals, as appropriate, to determine whether a student has a disability, and the nature and extent of the special education and related services that the student needs.

[20 U.S.C. §1414(a); 34 C.F.R. §§300.301-300.311] COMAR 13A.05.01.06C(1)]

Extended Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) Option

Prior to a child’s third birthday, if a child with a current IFSP is determined eligible for special education and related services, the child's family may choose to continue to receive early intervention services with an educational component that promotes school readiness and incorporates preliteracy, language, and numeracy through an IFSP until the beginning of the school year following the child’s fourth birthday.

[20 U.S.C. §1435(c); 1437(a)(11); 34 C.F. R. §303.211; Education Article §8-416; COMAR 13A.13.01.09C]

Extended School Year Services (ESY)

the individualized extension of specific special education and related services provided to a student with a disability beyond the normal school year of the public agency, in accordance with the IEP, at no cost to the parents of the student; and which meet the standards of the Maryland State Department of Education. The determination of a student’s need for ESY services is made annually on an individual student basis by the student’s IEP team.

[34 C.F.R. 300.106] COMAR 13A.05.01.03B(26)]

F

Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
Special education and related services that are provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction, and without charge; meet state and federal requirements; include preschool, elementary school, or secondary school education; and are provided according to an IEP.

[20 U.S.C. §1412(a)(1)(A); 34 C.F.R. §300.101-113] COMAR 13A.05.01.03B(27)]

Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
The systematic process of gathering information to guide the development of an effective and efficient behavior intervention plan for the student’s identified problem behavior. An FBA includes the identification of the functions of the problem behavior for the student; a description of the problem behavior exhibited in the educational setting; and identification of environmental and other factors and settings that contribute to or predict the occurrence, nonoccurrence, and maintenance of the behavior over time.

[COMAR 13A.08.04.02B (5)]

H

Habiliative Services –

Habilitative services are therapeutic services that are provided to children with genetic conditions or conditions present from birth to enhance the child’s ability to function. Habilitative services are similar to rehabilitative services that are provided to adults or children who acquire a condition later on. The difference is that rehabilitative services are geared toward reacquiring a skill that has been lost or impaired, while habilitative services are provided to help acquire a skill in the first place, such as walking or talking. Habilitative services include but are not limited to physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy for the treatment of a child with a congenital or genetic birth defect.

[Maryland Insurance Administration (MIA) Parents’ Guide to Habilitative Services, 2013]

High School Assessment –

The last retake administration of the Maryland High School Assessments (HSAs), English 10 and Algebra 1, is the summer 2015.
[State graduation requirements in COMAR 13A.03.02; Maryland Accommodations Manual, July 2012; State Performance Plan Indicator 3; Maryland SBOE October 2014]

I

Identification

The decision that a student is eligible for special education and related services as a student with a disability in accordance with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

[20 U.S.C. §1414(b)(4) and (5); 34 C.F.R. §300.306; COMAR 13A.05.01.04-.06]

Indirect Service

A service provided for or on behalf of the student to ensure implementation of the individualized educational program (IEP) in the least restrictive environment (LRE).

Individualized Education Program (IEP)
A written description of the special education and related services for a student with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised by the student’s IEP team.

[20 U.S.C. §1414(d); 34 C.F.R. §§300.320 - 300.328; COMAR 13A.05.01.03B(34)]

IEP Team
The group of individuals responsible for identifying and evaluating students with disabilities; developing, reviewing, or revising an IEP for a student with a disability; and determining the placement of a student with a disability in the least restrictive environment (LRE). The team may also include, at the discretion of the parent or the local school system, other individuals who have knowledge or special expertise about the student.

[20 U.S.C. §1414(d) (1) (B)-(d) (1) (D); 34 C.F.R. §§300.321] COMAR 13A.05.01.03B(35)]

Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
A written plan for providing early intervention and other services to an eligible student and the student's family, which shall be consistent with 34 CFR §303.344 and:

  • Be developed jointly by the family and appropriate qualified personnel involved in the provision of early intervention services;
  • Be based on the multidisciplinary evaluation and assessment of the student, and the assessment of the student's family, as required in 34 CFR §303.322; and
  • Include services necessary to enhance the development of the student and the capacity of the family to meet the special needs of the student.

[34 C.F.R. §300.24; 34 C.F.R. §303.211; COMAR 13A.13.01.06 – .08]

L

Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
An educational environment which meets the needs of a student requiring special education and related services as set forth in the student’s IEP and which, to the maximum extent appropriate to the student’s needs, ensures that the student will be educated with nondisabled peers. To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are not disabled, and special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability of a student is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.

[20 U.S.C. §1412(a)(5); 34 C.F.R. §§300.114 - 300.120; COMAR 13A.05.01.10]

Limited English Proficient
An individual who does not speak English as his or her primary language and who has a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand English.

[20 U.S.C. §1401(18); 34 C.F.R. §300.27 COMAR 13A.05.01.03B(37)]

M

Maryland School Assessment (MSA) –The Maryland School Assessment Program (MSA) measures higher order thinking processes. The MSA in Science is for students enrolled in grades 5 and 8. The MSA in Science is administered in April of each year.
[See Maryland Accommodations Manual, July 2012; State Performance Plan Indicator 3]

Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE)
The State education agency responsible for administration and supervision of local education agencies to ensure the provision of a free appropriate public education is made available to all students with disabilities. [34 C.F.R. §300; Education Articles §§8-401 – 8-415, Annotated Code of Maryland; COMAR 13A.05.01; COMAR 13A.05.02; COMAR 13A.08.03; COMAR 13A.08.04]

Medical Assistance Service Coordination
Case management services which assist students with disabilities receiving medical assistance to gain access to the services recommended in the student’s IEP. The Medical Assistance Service Coordinator is an individual who meets the requirements specified in COMAR 10.09.52.03C and provides the services specified in COMAR 10.09.52.04. A service coordinator shall be an employee or under contract with a provider, be chosen by the IEP team or waiver multidisciplinary team, with the approval of the participant's parent or parents, taking into consideration the primary disability manifested by the student, the student’s needs, and services recommended in the IEP. The Service Coordinator is to:
 

Participate in the IEP team to develop, review, or revise the student’s IEP, as appropriate, as in gaining access to the services recommended in the IEP;
Assist the student in gaining access to the services recommended in the IEP; and
Collect and synthesize evaluation reports and other relevant information about the student that might be needed by an IEP team. [COMAR 10.09.52]

Modification
A practice or procedure that changes, lowers, or reduces learning expectations. Modifications can increase the gap between the achievement of students with disabilities and expectations for proficiency at a particular grade level. Using modifications may result in implications that could adversely affect students throughout their educational career. [Maryland Accommodations Manual, July 2013]

Modified High School Assessment (Mod-HSA) – The last administration of Mod-HAS for second time test taker will be August 2015. The Modified High School Assessments (Mod-HSAs) are Modified Assessments based on course level core learning goals and modified academic achievement standards designed for students receiving special education services and who meet specific participation requirements.

N

National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) –

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) produces the Nation’s Report Card, to inform the public about the academic achievement of elementary and secondary students in the United States. The NAEP collects and reports academic achievement at the national level, and for certain assessments, at the state and district levels. The results are widely reported by the national and local media, and are an integral part of our nation’s evaluation of the condition and progress of education.
The NAEP program has always endeavored to assess all students selected as a part of its sampling process. In all NAEP schools, accommodations will be provided as necessary for students with disabilities (SWD) and/or English language learners (ELLs). Participation of an SWD or ELL student is encouraged if that student:

  • Participated in the regular state academic assessment in the subject being tested; and
  • If that student can participate in NAEP with the accommodations NAEP allows.

Examples of accommodations not allowed in NAEP are giving the reading assessment in a language other than English, or reading the reading passages aloud to the student. Also, extending testing over several days is not allowed for NAEP because NAEP administrators are in each school only one day.)

P

Parent/Guardian
Parent/Guardian means a student’s natural parents; a student’s adoptive parent; a guardian; a person acting as a parent of a student such as a grandparent, stepparent, or other relative with whom the student lives, or an individual who is legally responsible for the student’s welfare. Parent also includes a foster parent, with whom the student lives if the foster parent has been granted limited guardianship for educational decision-making purposes by the court that has placed the student in foster care. A parent includes a parent surrogate who has been appointed in accordance with 20 U.S.C. §1415(b) (2), and Education Article, §8-412, Annotated Code of Maryland. The term “parent” does not include a social worker or other employee of a public agency who is responsible for the education or care of the student.

[20 U.S.C. §1401(23); 34 C.F.R. §300.30; Education Article §8-412, Annotated Code of Maryland; COMAR 13A.05.01.03B(52)]

Parent Surrogate
A person who is appointed by the local school superintendent to act in place of a parent of a student in the educational decision making process when a student is a ward of the State, or the student’s parents or unknown or unavailable, in accordance with Education Article §8-412, Annotated Code of Maryland.

[20 U.S.C. §1415(b)(2); 34 C.F.R. §300.519; Education Article §8-412, Annotated Code of Maryland] COMAR 13A.05.01.03B(52)]

Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) –

The Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) is a group of states working together to develop a set of assessments that measure whether students are on track to be successful in college and their careers. These high quality, computer-based K–12 assessments in Mathematics and English Language Arts/Literacy give teachers, schools, students, and parents better information whether students are on track in their learning and for success after high school, and tools to help teachers customize learning to meet student needs.

Postsecondary Transition
A coordinated set of activities for the student with a disability that is designed within a results-oriented process that will facilitate and support the student’s postsecondary goal(s).

[20 U.S.C. §1414(d)(1)(A) and (d)(6); 34 C.F.R. §§300.43; 300.320(b); COMAR 13A.05.01.03B(80); COMAR 13A.05.01.09A(3); State Performance Plan Indicators 13 and 14]

Prior Written Notice (PWN)
An IEP team shall provide prior written notice (PWN) to the parent of a student with a disability before the public agency proposes or refuses to initiate or change the identification, evaluation, educational placement of the student, or the provision of FAPE to the student. PWN content includes:

  • A description of the action proposed or refused;
  • An explanation of why the public agency proposes or refuses to take the action;
  • A description of the options the public agency considered and the reason the options were rejected;
  • A description of each assessment procedure, test, record, or report the public agency uses as a basis for the proposal or refusal;
  • A description of any other factors relevant to the proposed or refused action;
  • A statement that the parent has protections under the procedural safeguards of the Act and the manner in which the parent may obtain a copy of the procedural safeguards;
  • A list of sources a parent may contact to obtain assistance in understanding the provisions of this chapter;
  • A statement informing a parent of the State written complaint procedures of this chapter; and,
  • If an action proposed by a public agency also requires parental consent, a public agency may provide notice at the same time it requests consent.

[20 U.S.C. §§1415(b)(3) and (4), 1415(c)(1), and 1414(b)(1); 34 C.F.R. §300.503; COMAR 13A.05.01.12]

R

Reevaluation

A review of a student’s IEP by an IEP team at least once every three years, unless the public agency and student’s parents agree otherwise. On the basis of the review, and input from the student’s parents, the IEP team shall identify what additional data, if any, is needed, to determine:

  • Whether the student continues to be a student with a disability;
  • The educational needs of the student;
  • The present levels of academic achievement and related developmental needs of the student;
  • Whether additions or modifications to special education and related services are needed to enable the student to meet the measurable annual goals in the student’s IEP and to participate in the general curriculum; and
  • Whether the student continues to need special education and related services.

If the IEP team believes additional data is needed, the IEP team shall review the student’s IEP and the additional data within 90 calendar days of the IEP team meeting when the team determined the need for additional data.

[20 U.S.C. §§1401(30); 1414(a)(2); 1414(b)(6); 1414(c); 34 C.F.R. §§300.15; 300.303–300. 305; COMAR 13A.05.01.06E]

S

Service Plan

A service plan is a written statement developed and implemented in accordance with 20 U.S.C. 1412(a)(10)(A) that describes the special education and related services a local school system shall provide a parentally placed private school student with a disability designated to receive services including the location of the services and any transportation necessary.

[20 U.S.C. §1412(a)(10)(A); 34 C.F.R. §§300.130 – 300.144 COMAR 13A.05.01.03B(69)]

Supplementary Aids, Services, Program Modifications, and Supports
Supports and services that enable a student with a disability to be educated within general education settings alongside nondisabled peers. Appropriate supplementary aids, services, program modifications, and supports may include, but are not limited to the services of various personnel that provide instructional support, indirect consultation, related supportive services, special scheduling, materials, devices, and instructional adaptations as determined appropriate for the individual student.

[20 U.S.C. §1401(33); 34 C.F.R. §§300.42, 300.320(a)(4), 300.324(a)(3)(ii); COMAR 13A.05.01.03B(79); COMAR 13A.05.01.16B]

T

Travel Training

Instruction to students with disabilities, as appropriate, to enable them to: develop an awareness of the environment in which they live; and learn the skills necessary to move effectively and safely from place to place within that environment.

[20 U.S.C. §1401(29); 34 C.F.R. §300.39(a)(4); COMAR 13A.05.01.03B(83)]